The basic structure of WTO agreements: like the six main areas, the WTO framework agreement, goods, services, intellectual property, disputes and trade policy reviews. No no. The results of the sectoral negotiations are specific new commitments and/or exemptions for the sector concerned. They are therefore not legally independent of other sectoral obligations and are not different agreements from the GATS. New obligations and exemptions from the MFN were included in existing lists and exception lists in separate GATS protocols. These agreements are often referred to as WTOs trade rules, and the WTO is often referred to as rules, a rules-based system. But it is important to remember that the rules are in fact agreements negotiated by governments. The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an agreement of international law between all World Trade Organization (WTO) member states. It sets minimum standards for the regulation by national governments of many forms of intellectual property, as they apply to nationals of other WTO member states. The TRIPS agreement was negotiated in 1994 at the end of Uruguay`s round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and is managed by the WTO. On January 1, 2003, the textile and apparel sector will be integrated into the GATT, eliminating MfA restrictions.
The GATT aims to eliminate agricultural aid and export aid in industrialized countries. The agreement stipulates that all countries must reduce support contributions if they account for more than 5% of the total value of agricultural products, but more than 10% for developing countries. The value and volume of direct export subsidies must be reduced by 36% and 21% respectively for industrialized countries over six years. The TRIPS agreement introduced intellectual property rights into the international trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive international intellectual property agreement to date. Under the TRIPS provisions, Member States are required to develop the legal framework necessary to define the scope and standards for the protection of intellectual property rights. In other words, Member States must incorporate the provisions of TRIPS into their national intellectual property legislation, such as the Patent Act, copyright law, etc. Since the TRIPS agreement came into force, it has been criticized by developing countries, scientists and non-governmental organizations. While some of this criticism is generally opposed to the WTO, many proponents of trade liberalization also view TRIPS policy as a bad policy.
The effects of the concentration of WEALTH of TRIPS (money from people in developing countries for copyright and patent holders in industrialized countries) and the imposition of artificial shortages on citizens of countries that would otherwise have had weaker intellectual property laws are common bases for such criticisms.